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php

DSO

It is also known as mod_php.  It is the fastest way to serve the PHP requests. It runs PHP directly from the Apache without working like a separate service. The PHP scripts will run as the Apache user, which by default is the user ‘nobody’. In this case the PHP scripts all are owned & executed by the Apaches’s ‘nobody’ user. Therefore, we cannot track each individual user since they all run from one web server.  Security is another concern in DSO mode. It is vulnerable to malicious attacks that could modify your PHP scripts or modify the files outside of that user’s directory that had the PHP script that were exploitable. The benefit of the DSO handler is that it provides PHP opcode caching along with DSO to speed up the PHP requests. Also, we can set PHP directives directly via .htaccess files to control certain functionality of PHP.

You might choose DSO as your PHP handler if you only have one user and your primary concern is speed and performance.

CGI

CGI handler will run PHP as a CGI module as opposed to an Apache module. The CGI method is intended as a fallback handler for when DSO is not available. This method is neither fast nor secure. That is regardless of whether or not suEXEC is enabled. Nowadays, CGI handlers are used less frequently because of other handler benefits. Similar to suPHP and FastCGI, the CGI handler can use suEXEC. Instead, PHP executions are run by the file owner of a PHP script rather than the Apache “nobody” user. The usage of CGI handlers provides ease of configuration and support using suEXEC for reducing permission related issue. The main disadvantage of the CGI handler is that it is one of the slowest handler. The CGI handler is the least popular for this reason leading it to be one of the less frequently used handlers

CGI is a recommended PHP handler if suPHP, DSO, or FastCGI was not available in your server.

suPHP

Technically it is a CGI module, but it is entirely different from the CGI handler. It is the most flexible and secure way of serving PHP requests. The main advantage with this handler is it runs the PHP script as the user calling them, instead the ‘nobody’ user. Also, it is quite easy to monitor the usage of PHP script executions, because for every PHP request that is being processed a separate PHP process will be generated. Another advantage is that suPHP handler isolates one of the user on the server from others. This is a precaution taken because if one user’s account is misused then the attacker would only be able to view or modify files owned by that particular users. These applications require permission to have the ability to write, modify, and create files on the server. Permission management is easy to configure because all of your files are owned by just one user.

The main disadvantage of suPHP is speed and CPU load. This handler is recommended for small reseller clients, because it possess the high load of running separate PHP process per request. Also, if the server receives high amount of PHP requests in small period of time, this can result in a heavy load on your server.

The selection of suPHP as your PHP handler is recommended if you have multiple users on your server. You do not want to worry about setting permissions, and you are not having any performance issues with the PHP scripts that is currently used.

Fast CGI

FastCGI PHP handler is a faster way to serve PHP requests than using suPHP, but typically not as fast as using DSO. FastCGI helps reduce CPU usage by increasing the server’s available RAM in order to cache PHP scripts in the memory. This method is use instead of starting up a separate PHP process for each and every PHP request.

The main benefit of using FastCGI is that you can you can use suEXEC just like in the suPHP. This allows the PHP scripts to be executed by the actual user of the PHP script instead of the Apache’s ‘nobody’ user. It also does not require a single PHP process execution per request like suPHP does, which enhances the speed and the CPU usage by keeping PHP scripts in the memory. Issue regarding the memory usage is the drawback of FastCGI.  Also regarding the PHP opcode cache, itt keeps PHP sessions opened in the background in memory for faster access

FastCGI is the best handler if you are looking for a faster PHP execution, provided that you the high availability of memory to spare on your server.

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密码保护:监控

这是一篇受密码保护的文章,您需要提供访问密码:

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ovz源

yum remove -y kernel-firmware-2.6.32-696.30.1.el6.noarch
wget ie.archive.ubuntu.com/centos/6/cr/x86_64/Packages/kernel-firmware-2.6.32-754.el6.noarch.rpm

rpm -ivh kernel-firmware-2.6.32-754.el6.noarch.rpm

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密码保护:win7 key

这是一篇受密码保护的文章,您需要提供访问密码:

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Linux 连续执行多条命令

以前一直使用“shell+expect”组合。

后来在使用过程中,越发觉得expect这个东东太落后了,原因如下:

1. 官方已经停止发行新版本了;

2. 调试起来效率低,很多时候代码走的路子跟人想的差太多。

于是,后来决定使用python这一种脚本语言全部搞定。

实践证明,python开发效率非常高,的确是“糙快猛”。

停,跑题了。。。

在我的Automation case中,需要检查一个命令是否执行成功(假设命令为checklog,成功返回0,失败返回1)。

正常情况下,在checklog的下一句,直接“echo $?”,判断0,1即可。

但是,因为执行环境中的命令提示符中有0和1,所以pexpect无法判断“echo $?”的结果。

后来,琢磨着琢磨着,脑海里就冒出来上面的知识点来,试了一下,顺利解决问题特此Mark一下。

# 期望checklog执行成功
checklog && echo success
pexpect.expect(‘success’)

# 期望checklog执行失败
checklog || echo failure
pexpect.expect(‘failure’)

温习知识点:
1. 命令被分号“;”分隔,这些命令会顺序执行下去;
2. 命令被“&&”分隔,这些命令会顺序执行下去,遇到执行错误的命令停止;
3. 命令被双竖线“||”分隔,这些命令会顺序执行下去,遇到执行成功的命令停止,后面的所有命令都将不会执行;

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linux下测试网络速度

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/sivel/speedtest-cli/master/speedtest.py
chmod +x speedtest.py
./speedtest.py
演示
root@cn2:~# ./speedtest.py
Retrieving speedtest.net configuration…
Testing from QuadraNet (104.129.8.16)…
Retrieving speedtest.net server list…
Selecting best server based on ping…
Hosted by Interoute VDC (Los Angeles, CA) [1.30 km]: 1.825 ms
Testing download speed……………………………………………………………………..    下行
Download: 97.70 Mbit/s
Testing upload speed……………………………………………………………………………………  上行
Upload: 94.82 Mbit/s

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semget: No space left on device DA 启动不了apache

This relates to semaphores on your system (you’ve run out).  Run the following to clear them out:

ipcs | grep apache | awk ‘{print $2}’ > sem.txt
for i in `cat sem.txt`; do { ipcrm -s $i; }; done;

If this becomes a common occurance, then you may need to change your ipcs semaphore limits.
Set the following in your /etc/sysctl.conf:

kernel.msgmni = 1024
kernel.sem = 250 256000 32 1024

and reboot your system to load in those values.

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密码保护:屏了一些ip

这是一篇受密码保护的文章,您需要提供访问密码:

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proxmox lxc改密码

1.在母机器lxc-attach -n  101

2.passwd

3.exit

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Linux配置防火墙,开启80端口、3306端口

1) 重启后生效
开启: chkconfig iptables on
关闭: chkconfig iptables off

2) 即时生效,重启后失效
开启: service iptables start
关闭: service iptables stop

 

vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables

-A INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p tcp –dport 80 -j ACCEPT(允许80端口通过防火墙)
-A INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p tcp –dport 3306 -j ACCEPT(允许3306端口通过防火墙)
特别提示:很多网友把这两条规则添加到防火墙配置的最后一行,导致防火墙启动失败,正确的应该是添加到默认的22端口这条规则的下面

添加好之后防火墙规则如下所示:

######################################
# Firewall configuration written by system-config-firewall
# Manual customization of this file is not recommended.
*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
-A INPUT -m state –state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p tcp –dport 22 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p tcp –dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p tcp –dport 3306 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -j REJECT –reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
-A FORWARD -j REJECT –reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
COMMIT
#####################################

/etc/init.d/iptables restart
#最后重启防火墙使配置生效

 

 

systemctl stop iptables 防火墙 service iptables save systemctl restart iptables

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centos 单网卡加多ip

#写入以下内容

DEVICE=eth0                   //绑定IP段的网卡名称
ONBOOT=yes                    //开机启用此网卡
BOOTPROTO=static              //协议为静态
IPADDR_START=192.168.0.101    //网段的起始IP
IPADDR_END=192.168.0.120      //网段的截止IP
NETMASK=255.255.255.255       //子网掩码
CLONENUM_START=0              //这个数字是网卡别名的开始位置,比如这里的3是指eth0:0,并且会把IPADDR_START设置的IP192.168.0.101绑定到eth0:0上,以此类推
NO_ALIASROUTING=yes           //这个参数的作用是数据包始终通过eth0进出,不走网卡别名(如eth0:0),设置这个参数可以加快路由的响应速度,所以强烈建议配置。

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cpanel改变默认ip

Steps in WHM:

  • Log into WHM and go to Basic cPanel & WHM Setup
  • Change the Primary IP here with the option that says “The IP address (only one address) that will be used for setting up shared IP virtual hosts
  • Note: This might not actually be necessary.

Log in to SSH, and do the following:

  • Edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
    • Change the IPADDR and GATEWAY lines to match the new IP and Gateway for the new ip

 

  • Edit /etc/sysconfig/network
    • Change the GATEWAY line here if it does not exist in the ifcfg-* file.

 

  • Edit /etc/ips
    • Remove the new primary IP from this file if it is present
    • Add the old primary IP to this file with the format ::

  • Edit /var/cpanel/mainip
    • Replace the old primary IP with the new primary IP

 

  • Edit /etc/hosts
    • Replace the old primary IP with the new one if needed. The hostname’s dns will need to be updated too

 

  • Restart the network service to make the new IP the primary
    • service network restart
    • Note: You’re probably going to be disconnected at this point, and have to log in to ssh using the new primary ip.

 

  • Restart the ipaliases script to bring up the additional IP
    • service ipaliases restart

  • Run ifconfig and make sure all IPs show up correctly

 

  • Update the cpanel license to the new primary IP

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iftop

安装iftop
安装方法1、编译安装
如果采用编译安装可以到iftop官网下载最新的源码包。

安装前需要已经安装好基本的编译所需的环境,比如make、gcc、autoconf等。安装iftop还需要安装libpcap和libcurses。

CentOS上安装所需依赖包:

yum install flex byacc libpcap ncurses ncurses-devel libpcap-devel

Debian上安装所需依赖包:

apt-get install flex byacc libpcap0.8 libncurses5

下载iftop

wget http://www.ex-parrot.com/pdw/iftop/download/iftop-0.17.tar.gz

tar zxvf iftop-0.17.tar.gz

cd iftop-0.17

./configure

make && make install

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负载高,自动重启mysql,apache

#!/bin/sh
# crontab: */3 * * * * /root/loadavg_restart_apache.sh >> /var/log/restart_apache.log
sync
sync
echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
TOP_SYS_LOAD_NUM=5
SYS_LOAD_NUM=`uptime | awk ‘{print $(NF-2)}’ | sed ‘s/,//’`
echo $(date +”%y-%m-%d”) `uptime`
if [ `echo “$TOP_SYS_LOAD_NUM < $SYS_LOAD_NUM”|bc` -eq 1 ]
then
sync
echo “#0#” $(date +”%y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S”) “pkill httpd” `ps -ef | grep httpd | wc -l`
echo “#0#” $(date +”%y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S”) “pkill mysql” `ps -ef | grep mysql | wc -l`
service httpd stop
service mysql stop
sleep 8
pkill httpd
pkill mysql

sleep 8
for i in 1 2 3
do
if [ `pgrep mysql | wc -l` -le 0 ]
then
/sbin/service mysql start

sleep 30
echo “#1#” $(date +”%y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S”) “start mysql” `ps -ef | grep mysql | wc -l`

fi

if [ `pgrep httpd | wc -l` -le 0 ]
then

service httpd start

      service wdapache start

sleep 30

echo “#1#” $(date +”%y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S”) “start httpd” `ps -ef | grep httpd | wc -l`
fi

done
else
if [ `pgrep mysql | wc -l` -le 0 ]
then
/sbin/service mysql start

sleep 30
echo “#2#” $(date +”%y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S”) “start mysql” `ps -ef | grep mysql | wc -l`

fi

if [ `pgrep httpd | wc -l` -le 0 ]
then

service httpd start

 

sleep 30

echo “#2#” $(date +”%y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S”) “start httpd” `ps -ef | grep httpd | wc -l`
fi

fi

将以上文件,保存在 /root/loadavg_restart_apa_my.sh

然后在

crontab -e

添加

*/3 * * * * /root/loadavg_restart_apa_my.sh >> /var/log/restart_apa_my.log

*/3 ***** 表示3分钟,/root/loadavg_restart_apa_my.sh 你可以自定义。

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